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Evolution of resistance to single and combined floral phytochemicals by a bumble bee parasiteuse asterix (*) to get italics
Palmer-Young EC, Sadd BM, Adler LSPlease use the format "First name initials family name" as in "Marie S. Curie, Niels H. D. Bohr, Albert Einstein, John R. R. Tolkien, Donna T. Strickland"
Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defence against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multicompound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite *Crithidia bombi* to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over 6 weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure. Resistance of *C. bombi* increased under single and combined phytochemical exposure, without any associated costs of reduced growth under phytochemical-free conditions. After 6 weeks’ exposure, phytochemical concentrations that initially inhibited growth by > 50%, and exceeded concentrations in floral nectar, had minimal effects on evolved parasite lines. Unexpectedly, the phytochemical combination did not impede resistance evolution compared to single compounds. These results demonstrate that repeated phytochemical exposure, which could occur in homogeneous floral landscapes or with therapeutic phytochemical treatment of managed hives, can cause rapid evolution of resistance in pollinator parasites. We discuss possible explanations for submaximal phytochemical resistance in natural populations. Evolved resistance could diminish the antiparasitic value of phytochemical ingestion, weakening an important natural defence against infection. Introduction
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Bombus; cell culture; Crithidia bombi; dose–response curves; drug resistance; EC50; eugenol; experimental evolution; Markov chain Monte Carlo; thymol.
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Evolutionary Ecology
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2016-12-14 16:47:14
Alison Duncan