Submit a preprint


Domestication of different varieties in the cheese-making fungus *Geotrichum candidum*use asterix (*) to get italics
Bastien Bennetot, Jean-Philippe Vernadet, Vincent Perkins, Sophie Hautefeuille, Ricardo C. Rodríguez de la Vega, Samuel O’Donnell, Alodie Snirc, Cécile Grondin, Marie-Hélène Lessard, Anne-Claire Peron, Steve Labrie, Sophie Landaud, Tatiana Giraud, Jeanne RoparsPlease use the format "First name initials family name" as in "Marie S. Curie, Niels H. D. Bohr, Albert Einstein, John R. R. Tolkien, Donna T. Strickland"
<p>Domestication is an excellent model for studying adaptation processes, involving recent adaptation and diversification, convergence following adaptation to similar conditions, as well as degeneration of unused functions. <em>Geotrichum candidum</em> is a fungus used for cheese making and is also found in other environments such as soil and plants. By analyzing whole-genome data from 98 strains, we found that all strains isolated from cheese formed a monophyletic clade. Within the cheese clade, we identified three genetically differentiated populations and we detected footprints of recombination and admixture. The genetic diversity in the cheese clade was similar as that in the wild clade, suggesting the lack of strong bottlenecks. Commercial starter strains were scattered across the cheese clade, thus not constituting a single clonal lineage. The cheese populations were phenotypically differentiated from other populations, with a slower growth on all media, even cheese, a prominent production of typical cheese volatiles and a lower proteolytic activity. One of the cheese clusters encompassed all soft goat cheese strains, suggesting an effect of cheese-making practices on differentiation. Another of the cheese populations seemed to represent a more advanced stage of domestication, with stronger phenotypic differentiation from the wild clade, harboring much lower genetic diversity, and phenotypes more typical of cheese fungi, with denser and fluffier colonies and a greater ability of excluding cheese spoiler fungi. Cheese populations lacked two beta lactamase-like genes present in the wild clade, involved in xenobiotic clearance, and displayed higher contents of transposable elements, likely due to relaxed selection. Our findings suggest the existence of genuine domestication in <em>G. candidum</em>, which led to diversification into different varieties with contrasted phenotypes. Some of the traits acquired by cheese strains indicate convergence with other, distantly related fungi used for cheese maturation.</p> should fill this box only if you chose 'All or part of the results presented in this preprint are based on data'. URL must start with http:// or https:// should fill this box only if you chose 'Scripts were used to obtain or analyze the results'. URL must start with http:// or https:// should fill this box only if you chose 'Codes have been used in this study'. URL must start with http:// or https://
Domestication, adaptive divergence, lipolysis, proteolysis, genomics, volatiles, laboratory experiments, Galactomyces candidus
NonePlease indicate the methods that may require specialised expertise during the peer review process (use a comma to separate various required expertises).
Adaptation, Genome Evolution, Population Genetics / Genomics
Jean-Luc Legras [], Cécile Neuvéglise [], Joseph Schacherer [], Christophe Chassard [] No need for them to be recommenders of PCIEvolBiol. Please do not suggest reviewers for whom there might be a conflict of interest. Reviewers are not allowed to review preprints written by close colleagues (with whom they have published in the last four years, with whom they have received joint funding in the last four years, or with whom they are currently writing a manuscript, or submitting a grant proposal), or by family members, friends, or anyone for whom bias might affect the nature of the review - see the code of conduct
Ben Wolfe [], Rachel Dutton []e.g. John Doe []
2022-08-12 20:50:42
Christelle Fraïsse