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Increased birth rank of homosexual males: disentangling the older brother effect and sexual antagonism hypothesisuse asterix (*) to get italics
Michel Raymond, Daniel Turek, Valerie Durand, Sarah Nila, Bambang Suryobroto, Julien Vadez, Julien Barthes, Menelaos Apostolou, Pierre-André CrochetPlease use the format "First name initials family name" as in "Marie S. Curie, Niels H. D. Bohr, Albert Einstein, John R. R. Tolkien, Donna T. Strickland"
<p style="text-align: justify;">Male homosexual orientation remains a Darwinian paradox, as there is no consensus on its evolutionary (ultimate) determinants. One intriguing feature of homosexual men is their higher male birth rank compared to heterosexual men. This can be explained by two non-exclusive mechanisms: an antagonistic effect (AE), implying that more fertile women have a higher chance of having a homosexual son and to produce children with a higher mean birth rank, or a fraternal birth effect (FBOE), where each additional older brother increases the chances for a male embryo to develop a homosexual orientation due to an immunoreactivity process. However, there is no consensus on whether both FBOE and AE are present in human populations, or if only one of these mechanisms is at play with its effect mimicking the signature of the other mechanism. An additional sororal birth order effect (SBOE) has also recently been proposed. To clarify this situation, we developed theoretical and statistical tools to study FBOE and AE independently or in combination, taking into account all known sampling biases. These tools were applied on new individual data, and on various available published data (two individual datasets, and all relevant aggregated data). Support for FBOE was apparent in aggregated data, with the FBOE increasing linearly with fertility. The FBOE was also supported in two individual datasets. An SBOE is generated when sampling in presence of FBOE, suggesting that controlling for FBOE is required to avoid artefactual SBOE. AE was not supported in individual datasets, including the analysis of the extended maternal family. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.</p> should fill this box only if you chose 'All or part of the results presented in this preprint are based on data'. URL must start with http:// or https:// should fill this box only if you chose 'Scripts were used to obtain or analyze the results'. URL must start with http:// or https://
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homosexuality, sexual orientation, fraternal birth order, older brothers, female fecundity, balancing selection, maternal immunization
NonePlease indicate the methods that may require specialised expertise during the peer review process (use a comma to separate various required expertises).
Life History, Other, Phenotypic Plasticity, Reproduction and Sex
No need for them to be recommenders of PCIEvolBiol. Please do not suggest reviewers for whom there might be a conflict of interest. Reviewers are not allowed to review preprints written by close colleagues (with whom they have published in the last four years, with whom they have received joint funding in the last four years, or with whom they are currently writing a manuscript, or submitting a grant proposal), or by family members, friends, or anyone for whom bias might affect the nature of the review - see the code of conduct
e.g. John Doe []
2022-03-03 11:28:44
Jacqui A. Shykoff